Akt/FOXO3a/SIRT1-mediated cardioprotection by n-tyrosol against ischemic stress in rat in vivo model of myocardial infarction: switching gears toward survival and longevity
Moderate consumption of wine has been associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular events. Recently we have shown that white wine is equally as cardioprotective as red wine. However, unlike resveratrol (polyphenol in red wine), the white wine component, n-tyrosol [2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol] has not been explored for its cardioprotective effect and mechanism of action. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of tyrosol treatment (5 mg/kg/day for 30 days) on myocardial ischemic stress in a rat in vivo model of Myocardial Infarction (MI) and to identify key molecular targets involved in this mechanism. MI was induced by Left Anterior Descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation. Reduced infarct size (32.42 vs 48.03%) and cardiomyocyte apoptosis (171 vs 256 counts/100 HPF) were observed along with improvement in the myocardial functional parameters such as LVIDs (5.89 vs 6.58 mm), ejection fraction (51.91 vs 45.09%), and fractional shortening (28.46 vs 23.52%) as assessed by echocardiography in the tyrosol-treated animals when compared to the nontreated controls. We have also observed significant increase in the phosphorylation of Akt (1.4-fold), eNOS (3-fold) and FOXO3a (2.6-fold). In addition, tyrosol induced the expression of longevity protein SIRT1 (3.2-fold) in the MI group as compared to the non-treated MI control. Therefore tyrosol's SIRT1, Akt and eNOS activating power adds another dimension to the white wine research, because it adds a great link to the French paradox. In conclusion these findings suggest that tyrosol induces myocardial protection against ischemia related stress by inducing survival and longevity proteins that may be considered as anti-aging therapy for the heart. However, human intervention studies would be necessary before establishing any recommendations about dietary habits for tyrosol intake or administration of dietary supplements containing tyrosol.