Alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk: mechanisms of action and epidemiologic perspectives
An inverse association between moderate alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk, in particular coronary disease and ischemic stroke, has been demonstrated in many epidemiologic studies. In addition, several not primarily vascular diseases are also known to occur less frequently in moderate drinkers than in nondrinkers, whereas excess drinking is unquestionably harmful. As a consequence, strong concern exists on the possibility that at any dosage the benefit of alcohol could overcome its harmful effects. Alcohol affects several biochemical factors that have potential cardioprotective benefits, including lipids, platelet aggregation, fibrinogen, tissue-plasminogen activator, plasminogen-activator inhibitor and omega-3 fatty acids. Wine possibly acts through mechanisms that might provide additional cardiovascular benefits. Mechanisms supporting the protective effect of moderate alcohol intake against cardiovascular disease, and epidemiologic evidence concerning the relationship between alcohol dosing and vascular and all-cause mortality are discussed in this review.
Existe una asociación inversa entre el consume moderado de alcohol y el riesgo cardiovascular, en particular en las enfermedades coronarias demostrado por numerosos estudios epidemiológicos. El vino posiblemente actúa a través de mecanismos que pueden promover beneficios cardiovasculares. En esta revisión se analizan los estudios epidemiológicos en esta área.