The antioxidant properties of wine have been largely related to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability of phenolic compounds. Polyphenolic compounds are hardly absorbed and quickly transformed into metabolites. Their antioxidant activities just as radical scavenging properties are therefore limited, but it is worth looking to other mechanisms. This study intended to test whether wine consumption affects antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression. For this purpose, eight subjects drank 300 mL of red wine every day for a week and ate a low phenolic diet (LPD + W) specifically designed to avoid interferences from other polyphenols in the diet. The control period was a week with this diet, and volunteers refrained from drinking wine (LPD). Blood samples were taken at 0, 1, and 7 days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were determined in erythrocytes (SOD), plasma (CAT and GR), and blood (GPx). Gene expression was determined in macrophages. Oxidative stress caused by LPD reduced SOD, CAT, and GR activities. After wine consumption, these activities significantly increased (P < 0.05), and this overcame the effect of oxidative stress on enzyme activity. The modulation of CAT activity may be independent of changes in their gene expression, which significantly increased after LPD. However, SOD gene expression increased only during the LPD + W week. Enzyme activities are not all regulated in the same way. The results show that subacute moderate wine ingestion modulated antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, which is important for the prevention of ROS-associated diseases.
Las propiedades antioxidantes del vino han sido ampliamente relacionadas con las especies reactivas de oxigeno especialmente debido a los compuestos fenólicos presentes en el vino. Los compuestos polifenólicos son fuertemente absorbidos y rápidamente transformados en metabolitos. Este estudio intenta medir como la consumición de vino afecta a la actividad de enzimas antioxidantes y la expresión génica. Para ello ocho sujetos bebieron 300 ml de vino tinto al día por una semana y tomaron una dieta pobre en polifenoles específicamente diseñada para evitar interferencias con los polifenoles de la dieta.