Effects of oxysterols on cell viability, inflammatory cytokines, VEGF, and reactive oxygen species production on human retinal cells: cytoprotective effects and prevention of VEGF secretion by resveratrol
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Oxysterols are assumed to play important roles in age-related macular degeneration, a major cause of blindness. So we characterized the cytotoxic, oxidative, inflammatory, and angiogenic activities of oxysterols (7beta-hydroxycholesterol (7beta-OH), 7-ketocholesterol (7KC), 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OH)) in human retinal ARPE-19 cells, and evaluated the protective effects of resveratrol (Rsv: 1 muM), a polyphenol from red wine. METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were treated with 7beta-OH, 7KC, or 25-OH (5-40 mug/mL; 24-48 h) without or with Rsv. Cell viability was determined using trypan blue and the MTT assay. Cell death was characterized by electron microscopy and in situ detection of activated caspases with fluorochrome-labeled inhibitors of caspases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured with hydroethidine. ELISA methods and a cytometric bead assay were used to quantify cytokines involved in inflammation (IL-8, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, TNF-alpha, MCP-1) and VEGF. RESULTS: 7beta-OH and 7KC triggered a caspase-independent cell death process associated with the presence of multilamellar cytoplasmic structures evocating phospholipidosis, increased ROS production, and IL-8 secretion. 7beta-OH enhanced VEGF secretion. No cytotoxic effects were identified with 25-OH, which highly stimulated ROS production, MCP-1, and VEGF secretion. With oxysterols, no IL-10, TNF-alpha, and IL-12p70 secretion were detected. 25-OH induced IL-8 secretion through the MEK/ERK(1/2) signaling pathway, and Rsv showed cytoprotective activities and inhibited VEGF secretion. CONCLUSION: 7beta-OH, 7KC, and 25-OH have cytotoxic, oxidative, inflammatory, and/or angiogenic activities on ARPE-19 cells. As Rsv has some protective effects against oxysterol-induced cell death and VEGF secretion it could be valuable in ARMD treatment.
Los oxysteroles juegan un papel importante en la degeneración macular, la cual la principal causa de ceguera. En este estudio se caracterizan la capacidad citotóxica, inflamatoria, oxidativa y angiogénica de los oxysteroles (7beta-OH, 7KC y 25-OH) en células humanas de la retina y se evalúa los efectos protectores del resveratrol, un polifenol presente en el vino tinto. Hemos encontrado que los compuestos 7beta-OH y 25-OH tienen propiedades citotóxicas, oxidativas, inflamatorias y/o angiogénicas en células ARPE-19