Estudios científicos

Endothelin-1 synthesis reduced by red wine


Statistical evidence of reduced coronary heart disease in areas of high wine consumption has led to the widespread belief that wine affords a protective effect. Although moderate drinking of any alcohol helps to reduce the incidence of coronary heart disease, there is no clear evidence that red wine confers an additional benefit. Here we show that red wines strongly inhibit the synthesis of endothelin-1, a vasoactive peptide that is crucial in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. Our findings indicate that components specific to red wine may help to prevent coronary heart disease.

OBJECTIVE: Animal and clinical studies have suggested that polyphenols in fruits, red wine, and tea may delay the development of atherosclerosis through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated whether individual dietary polyphenols representing different polyphenolic classes, namely quercetin (flavonol), (-)-epicatechin (flavan-3-ol), theaflavin (dimeric catechin), sesamin (lignan), or chlorogenic acid (phenolic acid), reduce atherosclerotic lesion formation in the apolipoprotein E (ApoE)(-/-) gene-knockout mouse. METHODS AND RESULTS: Quercetin and theaflavin (64-mg/kg body mass daily) significantly attenuated atherosclerotic lesion size in the aortic sinus and thoracic aorta (P<0.05 versus ApoE(-/-) control mice). Quercetin significantly reduced aortic F(2)-isoprostane, vascular superoxide, vascular leukotriene B(4), and plasma-sP-selectin concentrations; and augmented vascular endothelial NO synthase activity, heme oxygenase-1 protein, and urinary nitrate excretion (P<0.05 versus control ApoE(-/-) mice). Theaflavin showed similar, although less extensive, significant effects. Although (-)-epicatechin significantly reduced F(2)-isoprostane, superoxide, and endothelin-1 production (P<0.05 versus control ApoE(-/-) mice), it had no significant effect on lesion size. Sesamin and chlorogenic acid treatments exerted no significant effects. Quercetin, but not (-)-epicatechin, significantly increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 protein in lesions versus ApoE(-/-) controls. CONCLUSIONS: Specific dietary polyphenols, in particular quercetin and theaflavin, may attenuate atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) gene-knockout mice by alleviating inflammation, improving NO bioavailability, and inducing heme oxygenase-1. These data suggest that the cardiovascular protection associated with diets rich in fruits, vegetables, and some beverages may in part be the result of flavonoids, such as quercetin.


Los polifenoles presentes en frutas, vino tinto y té pueden retrasar el desarrollo de aterosclerosis debido a sus propi4edades antinflamatorias y antioxidantes. Investigamos como los diferentes compuestos polifenolicos presentes en la dieta están divididos en diferentes clases. En particular la quecertina y la teaflavina pueden atenuar la aterosclerosis en ratones carentes del gen de ApoE.