Role of nitric oxide in resveratrol-induced renal protective effects of ischemic preconditioning
BACKGROUND: Resveratrol, a natural antioxidant and polyphenol found in red wine and grapes, has been found to pharmacologically precondition the heart through upregulation of nitric oxide (NO). This study was designed to explore the involvement of NO in the renoprotective effect of resveratrol in renal ischemic preconditioning in rat kidney.
METHODS: Ischemic preconditioning was induced by three cycles 2-minutes of ischemia followed by 5 minutes of reperfusion before 45 minutes of prolonged ischemia. Resveratrol was given 1 hour before the surgical procedures.
RESULTS: Ischemic preconditioning and resveratrol treatment significantly improved the renal dysfunction, decrease in total NO levels, and oxidative stress induced by 45 minutes of ischemia followed by 24 hours of reperfusion. Histopatholgic examination of the kidneys of ischemic/reperfusion rats revealed severe renal damage, which was attenuated in both preconditioned and resveratrol-treated animals. Preconditioning and resveratrol administration led to a marked increase in NO levels in kidney. Renoprotective effects of resveratrol were abolished when animals were pretreated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nonspecific NO synthase inhibitor.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate an important contributory role of NO in the protection afforded by resveratrol in renal ischemic preconditioning.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: It is now well established that brief periods of ischemia followed by reperfusion render a variety of tissues tolerant to subsequent ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury. This phenomenon, referred to as ischemic preconditioning, was first demonstrated in the dog myocardium. The potential for clinical application of such a powerful protective phenomenon has generated enormous interest in identifying the underlying intracellular signaling pathways, with the ultimate aim of pharmacologically exploiting these mechanisms to develop therapeutic strategies that can enhance tolerance to ischemia/reperfusion injury in patients. This study explored the possible involvement of nitric oxide in renal ischemic preconditioning.