Combined resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin treatment reduces breast tumor growth in a nude mouse model
Grape polyphenols can act as antioxidants, antiangiogenics, and selective estrogen receptor (ER) modifiers and are therefore especially relevant for gynecological cancers such as breast cancer. The major polyphenols of red wine (resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin) have been individually shown to have anticancer properties. However, their combinatorial effect on metastatic breast cancers has not been investigated in vivo. We tested the effect of low dietary concentrations of resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin on breast cancer progression in vitro by analyzing cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. The effects of these compounds on fluorescently tagged breast tumor growth in nude mice were assessed using in situ fluorescence image analysis. Individual polyphenols at 0.5 microM neither decreased breast cancer cell proliferation nor affected cell cycle progression in vitro. However, a combination of resveratrol, quercetin, and catechin at 0.5, 5, or 20 microM each significantly reduced cell proliferation and blocked cell cycle progression in vitro. Furthermore, using in situ image analysis, we determined that combined dietary polyphenols at 0.5, 5, or 25 mg/kg reduced primary tumor growth of breast cancer xenografts in a nude mouse model. Peak inhibition was observed at 5 mg/kg. These results indicate that grape polyphenols may inhibit breast cancer progression.